Research Note: Shear value ranges by Instron Warner-Bratzler and single-blade Allo-Kramer devices that correspond to sensory tenderness. The extent of the discoloration is related to each bird’s individual response to the conditions. Few factors during production and processing affect poultry meat flavour. Imports of chlorine-washed poultry could impact on UK quality standards. The Handbook of Meat, Poultry and Seafood Quality commences with a discussion of basic scientific factors responsible for the quality of fresh, frozen and processed muscle foods, especially sensory attributes and flavors. ), scalding temperatures, chilling, product packaging, and storage; however, these effects are too small for consumers to notice. Without oxygen and nutrients, muscles run out of energy, and they contract and become stiff. This stiffening is called rigor mortis. In poultry, edible components include meat, skin with subcutaneous fat and giblets (gizzard, liver, and heart) and sometimes also abdominal fat in waterfowl. Julie K. Northcutt of The University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Service discussed some of the factors affecing appearance, texture and flavour in the University's Bulletin 1157 published in June 1997. Breast meat is expected to have a pale pink color when it is raw, while thigh and leg meat are expected to be dark red when raw. Although electrical stimulation is still in the developmental stages, it seems that processors using it can debone carcasses right out of the chiller and save on their equipment costs, time, space and energy requirements. Dosatron launched “smart dosing” with their newest medicator system. The colour of the bruise, the amount of 'blood' present, and the extent of the 'blood clot' formation in the affected area are good indicators of the age of the injury and may give some clues as to its origin. Tenderness of portioned or boneless cuts of poultry is influenced by the time post-mortem of the deboning. Aviagen® has just released two Briefs entitled “Coccidiosis Control in Broiler Breeders with the use of Vaccines” and “Coccidiosis Control in Broilers with the use of Vaccines”. However, this is costly for the processor. Poultry meat color is affected by factors such as bird age, sex, strain, diet, intramuscular fat, meat moisture content, preslaughter conditions and processing variables. Pork 42. When electricity is applied to the dead bird, the treatment acts like a nerve impulse, and causes the muscle to contract, use up energy and enter rigor mortis at a faster rate. Poultry Grade Yield Report, Poultry Grading Branch, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. Erdtsieck, B. 1989. Texture (Tenderness) Poultry meat colour is affected by factors such as bird age, sex, strain, diet, intramuscular fat, meat moisture content, pre-slaughter conditions and processing variables. After consumers buy a poultry product, they relate the quality of that product to its texture and flavour when they are eating it. These factors must be identified and accommodated at every stage, from the parent stock to the fertilized egg, through hatchery operations and broiler farms, right down to processing and delivery to the end consumer. This is different from energy depletion in the live bird, which causes meat to be tough. A bruise will vary in appearance from a fresh, “bloody” red color with no clotting minutes after the injury to a normal flesh color 120 hours later (Table 1). However, these effects are too small for consumers to notice. Texture is the single most important sensory property affecting final quality assessment. 1995. For example, birds that struggle before or during slaughter cause their muscles to run out of energy quicker, and rigor mortis forms much faster than normal. On the other hand, if the processor waits 6 hours before deboning, 70 to 80 percent of the poultry meat will be tender (Figure 2). Anything that interferes with the formation of rigor mortis, or the softening process that follows it, will affect meat tenderness. Here we look at the effects of stocking density, one of the most important stress factors affecting production and yield in poultry farming. Poultry processing affects meat quality by establishing the chemistry of the muscle constituents and their interactions within the muscle structure. III. Fabricated cuts 39. Eventually, muscles become soft again, which means that they are tender when cooked. Stressor agent Species Effects observed on meat quality Reference Heat stress Poultry Higher incidence of pale, soft, exudative (PSE) meat and decrease in the a* value of meat; Minor effects on meat flavour are related to bird strain, diet, environmental conditions (litter, ventilation, etc. These documents were written by Jose J. Br…. The texture of these muscles tends to be tough because energy was reduced in the live bird. Besides, high stocking density may be associated with a surge in airborne pathogens. 2.3 Factors affecting quality of poultry meat: genotype ..... 24 2.4 Factors affecting quality of poultry meat: sex ..... 29 2.5 Factors affecting quality of poultry meat: rearing conditions and production practices ..... 29 2.6 Future trends: improving poultry quality ..... 32 Contents When electricity is applied to the dead bird, the treatment acts like a nerve impulse, and causes the muscle to contract, use up energy and enter rigor mortis at a faster rate. Whether or not a poultry product meets the consumer’s expectations depends upon the conditions surrounding various stages in the bird’s development from the fertilized egg through production and processing to consumption. Although there are a number of characteristics that determine the overall quality of meat (Figure 1), the following discussion will focus only on appearance, texture and flavour. Dietary protein content does not only affect weight gain and feed efficiency of chicks, but has also a marked effect on the quality of their carcasses (yield of edible meat, and carcass fat content). Julie K. Northcutt Colour of meat depends upon the presence of the muscle pigments myoglobin and haemoglobin. Flavor is another quality attribute that consumers use to determine the acceptability of poultry meat. II. Carcasses 2. Without oxygen and nutrients, muscles run out of energy, and they contract and become stiff. When poultry is deboned early (0 to 2 hours post-mortem), 50 to 80 per cent of the meat will be tough (Figure 2). Is the flavor of the meat correct? Colour of meat depends upon the presence of the muscle pigments myoglobin and haemoglobin. pp. There are times when poultry meat does not have the expected colour, and this has created some special problems for the poultry industry. If these characteristics do not meet the consumer's expectation, the product is considered to be of lower quality. Both taste and odour contribute to the flavour of poultry, and it is generally difficult to distinguish between the two during consumption (Figure 3). Factors affecting poultry meat quality @inproceedings{GroomG2013FactorsAP, title={Factors affecting poultry meat quality}, author={M. GroomG. Cues are pieces of information used to form quality expectations (Steenkamp, 1990). In order to meet the consumers’ growing demands for high-quality protein, the poultry industry focused on selection of fast-growing broilers, which reach a body mass of about 2.5 kg within 6-week-intensive fattening. The most important aspect of poultry meat is its eating quality – the state of the animal at slaughter. Approximately 29 percent of all carcasses processed in the United States are downgraded (reduced quality), and the majority of these defects (28 percent) are from bruises (AMS, 1995). Chicken meat is considered as an easily available source of high-quality protein and other nutrients that are necessary for proper body functioning. Types of meat and Poultry (Meat) 43. The Handbook of Meat, Poultry and Seafood Quality commences with a discussion of basic scientific factors responsible for the quality of fresh, frozen and processed muscle foods, especially sensory attributes and flavors. Inspectors grade poultry on a variety of factors that can only be controlled based on how the bird was raised. Meat quality is normally defined by the compositional quality (lean to fat ratio) and the palatability factors such as visual appearance, smell, firmness, juiciness, tenderness, and flavor. Following sections discuss factors affecting the quality of beef, pork, poultry, and seafood. Optimal carcass quality Following [2] pre-slaughter factors affecting poultry meat quality can be divided into two categories: long-term effect and those who have short term effect. Injuries that occur in the field are usually magnified by processing plant equipment or handling conditions in the plant. These chemical changes are not unique to poultry, but the lipids and fats in poultry are unique and combine with odor to account for the characteristic “poultry” flavor. Age of the bird at slaughter (young or mature birds) affect the flavour of the meat. Extreme environmental temperatures or stress due to live handling before processing can cause broiler and turkey breast meat to be discolored. Department of Poultry Science, I. The energy source used in the diet is also a factor for determining meat quality. No part of this site may be reproduced without permission. Color of meat depends upon the presence of the muscle pigments myoglobin and hemoglobin. Extreme environmental temperatures or stress due to live handling before processing can cause broiler and turkey breast meat to be discolored. The poultry industry has recently started using post-slaughter electrical stimulation immediately after death to hasten rigor development of carcasses and reduce 'aging' time before deboning. A newly discovered gene linked to bone quality could lead to better health in laying hens. Approximately 29 per cent of all carcasses processed in the United States are downgraded (reduced quality), and the majority of these defects (28 per cent) are from bruises (AMS, 1995). J. Historically, meat tenderness was primarily associated with live bird quality factors such as breed, sex, or age. Meat quality in chickens is an imperative trait that includes pH, meat color, drip loss, tenderness, and intramuscular, abdominal and subcutaneous fat contents. 2.3 FACTORS AFFECTING CONSUMER PERCEPTION ON MEAT QUALITY Main factors or quality cues that most contributes to the consumers’ perception on beef meat quality are the intrinsic and extrinsic quality cues. Anything that interferes with the formation of rigor mortis, or the softening process that follows it, will affect meat tenderness. Live production affects poultry meat quality by determining the state of the animal at slaughter. The color of the bruise, the amount of “blood” present, and the extent of the “blood clot” formation in the affected area are good indicators of the age of the injury and may give some clues as to its origin. These chemical changes are not unique to poultry but the lipids and fats in poultry are unique and combine with odour to account for the characteristic 'poultry' flavour. Table 1 Stress factors that affect meat quality of poultry, pigs, cattle, sheep, calves and lamb. High stocking density causes reduced feed consumption, lower growth rates and poor-quality carcasses. Few factors during production and processing affect poultry meat flavor. When these muscles are removed from the carcass, they contract and become tough. It is well known that dietary fatty acid profiles are reflected in tissue fatty acid. stressor agents can affect meat quality in the species. Another major cause of poultry meat discoloration is bruising. Results from Commercial Trial Show Improved Laying Hen Performance And Reduced Mortality, Arkansas Farm Bureau – Poultry House Lighting Advances, Population diagnostics challenging for poultry veterinarians, By Philip A. Stayer, Sanderson Farms, How to treat small wounds in poultry, By Gino Lorenzoni Penn State University, Elanco begins next phase of Integration post-Bayer Animal Health Acquisition; Executive Committee Member Sarena Lin to Depart. Whether or not a poultry product meets the consumer's expectations depends upon the conditions surrounding various stages in the bird's development from the fertilized egg through production and processing to consumption. Before poultry meat quality is addressed, the term quality should be clearly defined as it relates to poultry. Poultry meat colour is affected by factors such as bird age, sex, strain, diet, intramuscular fat, meat moisture content, pre-slaughter conditions and processing variables. Meeting these eating quality expectations and giving consumers confidence in their beef and sheepmeat purchases is the purpose of Meat Standards Australia (MSA). To avoid this toughening, meat is usually “aged” for 6 to 24 hours before deboning; however, this is costly for the processor. You have entered an incorrect email address! However, this definition is incomplete, because it does not consider the product’s character. Appearance (Color) Factors affecting eating quality Eating quality is a key purchase driver for red meat consumers. Meat Quality Testing. 1992. The nutritional quality of meat is objective yet “eating” quality, as perceived by the consumer, is highly subjective. When consumers buy a poultry product, cook and serve it to their families, they expect it to look, taste, and feel good in their mouth. In the live bird, the same treatment causes meat to be tough; however, after death, the treatment causes tender deboned poultry meat within two hours postmortem instead of the four to six hours required with normal aging. Flavor The poultry industry generally tries to identify where (field or plant), how, and when the injuries occur, but this is often difficult to determine. Although there are a number of characteristics that determine the overall quality of meat (Figure 1), the following discussion will focus only on appearance, texture, and flavor. A similar pattern occurs when birds are exposed to environmental stress (hot or cold temperatures) before slaughter. The poultry industry generally tries to identify where (field or plant), how, and when the injuries occur but this is often difficult to determine. Muscles that are deboned during early postmortem still have energy available for contraction. Proceedings Georgia International Poultry Course, Athens, GA. Gregory, N.G. Such factors as bird sex, age, strain, processing procedures, chemical exposure, cooking temperature, irradiation, and freezing conditions were all shown to affect poultry meat colour. In addition, it is the only species know to have muscles that are dramatic extremes in color (white and dark meat). The effect of deboning time on cooked meat tenderness. The producer, processor, retailer and consumer all have specific expectations for the quality attributes of poultry in Figure 1; however, the ultimate authority will always be the consumer. When these muscles are removed from the carcass, they contract and become tough. Beef - The ancestor of the beef cattle was a type of wild ox domesticated in ancient Greece and Turkey during the stone age. When poultry is cooked, flavor develops from sugar and amino acid interactions, lipid and thermal oxidation and thiamin degradation. Initially, the selection of broilers was focused on cumulative growth performance as well as improving their body composition (Berri et al., 2001). Stress Factors That Affect Meat Quality From the farm to abattoir, various stressors, such as environmental stress, nutritional stress, preslaughter handling stress, and other stress … High pre-slaughter stunning, high scalding temperatures, longer scalding times and machine picking can also cause poultry meat to be tough. Poultry Trends contains both regional and global statistics on poultry meat and eggs, covering production, consumption, trade, and the leading poultry producers and feed manufacturers worldwide. Quality of Poultry Meat: Texture and Color. The amount of 'blood' present and the extent of clot formation are useful in distinguishing if the injury occurred during catching/transportation or during processing. Poultry Science 70:188-191. Primal or wholesale cuts 3. ©2000 ‐ 2021 ‐ Global Ag Media. Primal and wholesale Lamb 40. Whether or not poultry meat is tender depends upon the rate and extent of the chemical and physical changes occurring in the muscle as it becomes meat. This stiffening is called rigor mortis. Poultry is unique because it is sold with and without its skin. Elsevier Applied Science, New York. Beef 41. For example, birds that struggle before or during slaughter cause their muscles to run out of energy quicker, and rigor mortis forms much faster than normal. In Processing of Poultry (G. C. Mead, ed.) The poultry industry has recently started using post-slaughter electrical stimulation immediately after death to hasten rigor development of carcasses and reduce “aging” time before deboning. Nutrition of birds has a significant impact on poultry meat quality and safety. In addition, it is the only species know to have muscles that are dramatic extremes in colour (white and dark meat). Poultry processing affects meat quality by establishing the chemistry of the muscle constituents and their interactions within the muscle structure. When poultry is cooked, flavour develops from sugar and amino acid interactions, lipid and thermal oxidation and thiamin degradation. and J, L. Fry INFORMATION ON POULTRY MEAT YIELDS and the many factors affect­ ing these yields is becoming increasingly important. Biological, physiological, nutritional, and environmental factors during the growing period could influence the susceptibility of poultry to PSE and have a final impact on meat quality. and B. Sauveur}, year={2013} } When an entire muscle is discolored, it is frequently the breast muscle. Before poultry meat quality is addressed, the term quality should be clearly defined as it relates to poultry. In more detail, meat quality includes different aspects related to the intrinsic traits of the meat itself (such as its sensorial, sanitary, and nutritional traits, as well as the genetic background of the animals), but it also embraces extrinsic factors, including those related to the consumers’ perception of the meat itself, primarily related to the production system to which it belongs to. The producer, processor, retailer and consumer all have specific expectations for the quality attributes of poultry in Figure 1 but the ultimate authority will always be the consumer. Meat Cuts, Types of Meat and Poultry and Aging 38. Tenderness of portioned or boneless cuts of poultry is influenced by the time post-mortem of the deboning. Is the meat juicy? Water is the most important nutrie…, Ongoing outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza are gravely impacting poultry flocks across Europe and Asia, spurring economists to revise their chicken meat consumption estimates for 2021.…. Quality requirements in the modern poultry industry. Age of the bird at slaughter (young or mature birds) affect the flavor of the meat. 1991. Discoloration of poultry can be related to the amount of these pigments that are present in the meat, the chemical state of the pigments, or the way in which light is reflected off of the meat. Although electri-cal stimulation is still in the developmental stages, it seems that processors using it can debone carcasses right out of the chiller and save on their equipment costs, time, space and energy requirements. When poultry is deboned early (0 to 2 hours post-mortem), 50 to 80 percent of the meat will be tough (Figure 2). Appearance is critical for both the consumers' initial selection of the product as well as for final product satisfaction. 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