These incidence rates include approximately 2.5 million TBI-related emergency department visits, 288,000 TBI-related hospitalizations, and 57,000 TBI-related deaths. Therefore, some children may not present with immediate effects of TBI, but will experience challenges later in their development, particularly as academic demands increase (Gerrard-Morris et al., 2010; H. G. Taylor et al., 2008). Telepractice may allow clinicians to help patients practice skills in the context in which those skills will be used (Turkstra, Quinn-Padron, Johnson, Workinger, & Antoniotti, 2012). Telepractice in speech-language pathology. TBI: A disease process, not an event. Developmental Neuroscience, 28, 256–263. Attention, memory, learning, executive function, and social–emotional impairments—coupled with self-regulation challenges—place individuals with TBI at greater risk for failure in academic settings (Kennedy et al., 2008). American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. The CDC (2019) identified the following leading causes: Falls were the leading cause of hospitalizations among adults 55 years of age and older (CDC, 2014). Sohlberg, M. M., & Mateer, C. A. Screening typically includes interviews with family members and/or teachers regarding concerns about the child's skills. Turkstra, L. S., Gamazon-Waddell, Y., & Evans, J. Retrieved from Standard scores should not be reported if a standardized test is modified or translated, as norms will not apply. Also, it is estimated that 145,000 children and adolescents (ages 0–19 years) are living with lasting cognitive, physical, or behavioral effects of TBI (Zaloshnja, Miller, Langlois, & Selassie, 2008). Cognitive rehabilitation: An integrative neuropsychological approach. A study examining causes and trends of TBI-related hospitalizations in adolescents in the United States (. Clifton Park, NY: Cengage Learning. World Health Organization. A separate resource on mild traumatic brain injury will be developed in the future. See ASHA's Practice Portal page on Cultural Competence for more information. In these cases, a speaking valve may be used to facilitate voicing. Difficulty with any aspect of communication that is affected by disruption of cognition is diagnosed as a cognitive-communication disorder (see ASHA, 1997; and Turkstra et al., 2015). Children with TBI can qualify for special education services with IFSPs, IEPs under IDEA, or Section 504 Plans under the Americans with Disabilities Act (see ASHA's resource on eligibility and dismissal in schools). ASHA extends its gratitude to the following subject matter experts who were involved in the development of the Traumatic Brain Injury page. Long-term consequences of repetitive brain trauma: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy. In G. Newby, R. Coetzer, A. Daisley, & S. Weatherhead (Eds. The odds of sustaining a TBI are 2.22 times higher in men than in women (Frost, Farrer, Primosch, & Hedges, 2012). This is likely an underestimate of the problem, as patients with mild TBI—who are often treated outside the hospital setting or are not treated at all—are not included in most estimates. Consistent with the ICF framework (WHO, 2001), intervention is designed to. Hearing screening and otoscopic inspection occur prior to screening for other deficits. Individuals with TBI may be eligible for protections in the workplace under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Metacognitive skills training is an integral part of DAT when used to treat cognitive-communication deficits in children with TBI (e.g., Lee, Harn, Sohlberg, & Wade, 2012; Sohlberg, Harn, MacPherson, & Wade, 2014). Retrieved from, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. New York, NY: Guilford. Traumatic Brain Injury (SCATBI) OUTPATIENT: comprehensive standardized testing with consideration of neuropsychological assessment - Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Evaluation (BDAE), Functional Assessment of Verbal Reasoning and Skills (FAVRES), American Speech (Fausti, Wilmington, Gallun, Myers, & Henry, 2009; Wintrow, 2013). Perspectives on School-Based Issues, 5, 14–19. When selecting standardized assessments, consider the following: Functional or situational assessments (e.g., language sampling, analog tasks, and naturalistic observation) and anecdotal reports are particularly useful for supplementing data from standardized tests when assessing individuals with TBI. Supporting the literacy skills of adolescents with traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 19, 85–91. 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